The Autism Center offers:
1. Sensory integration
2. Lessons of speech therapist, defectologist
3. Classes with a psychologist
4. GPT (general physical training)
5. Art therapy (music, drawing, fairy-tale therapy, dramatherapy, sand therapy and others)
6. Group therapy in groups
7. Extra-nanny services
8. Psychological training for parents on different topics
9. Training seminars for specialists, trainees, parents
Sensory integration is necessary for all children, whether we are talking about an “ordinary” child or child who is lagging behind in studies, with cerebral palsy or Down syndrome, with visual or hearing impairments. Absolutely all children need sensory experience, adequate ability to process and integrate various types of sensory information, the formation of adaptive skills.
Sensory integration is an ability:
• to perceive information coming from all our senses
• isolate the most relevant information
• analyze information
• Develop an appropriate response (Trott, 1993)
For the brain, a disorder or dysfunction of sensory integration is like a digestive disorder for the intestine. Words of dysfunction and violation of synonyms, they are used, saying that the brain works ineffectively and in it the natural course of processes is disrupted.
The word sensory means that the sensory systems are affected. The brain does not process or order streams of sensory impulses, and as a result, a person does not receive accurate information about himself and the world around him. Incorrect processing of sensory signals also affects behavior and learning; A person, as a rule, feels that something is wrong with him, and can not cope with simple tasks and stress.
Violations of processing and integration of sensory signals in the central nervous system affect such important spheres of a child’s life as emotions, play, social interaction, behavioral regulation, learning and development of motor skills.
Problems in school, in communicating with peers and behavioral difficulties are not the result of poor upbringing or laziness of the child, but a real problem requiring close attention and systematic training.
The text is taken from the book “Baby and sensory integration” by Jean Ayres
The theory of sensory integration is that the primary and basic systems that are laid in humans and are the basis for its development are the vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile systems. The functioning of the auditory and visual analyzer (if they are not damaged) are stimulated by signals coming from the vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile systems. And this in turn affects the development of coordination of movement, concentration of attention and level of motor activity. The proper functioning of these systems enables the normative development of cognitive functions and the body.
The vestibular function ripens in the body one of the first. On the 19th day of the development of the fetus, there is a palpitation. And in two more days it is possible to find out the first vestibular reactions of a new growing organism. But at this point many future mothers do not even know about their pregnancy!
Usually equilibrium is associated with the vestibular apparatus.
Inner ear and consists of semicircular canals (these are tubules filled with endolymph) and otoliths (these are “pebbles” which roll over when the head position changes.) Otoliths react to linear accelerations, and semicircular canals to angular acceleration of the head, but equilibrium is provided not only by the work of the vestibular The eyes have both vision and muscular-joint (proprioceptive) feeling. Basically the sense of balance is controlled by the cerebellum.
All movements in the first 15 months of a child’s life are closely related to the development of balance and vestibular function. As a result, the following abilities are formed:
– Visual perception of space;
– Binocular coordination (use of visual information from both eyes);
– The ability to process tactile information;
– Awareness of movement;
– Concentration of attention;
– Development of speech.
Sometimes people are already born with an imbalance, and sometimes violations occur during childbirth or at an early age. In any case, they are an essential brake on the development (both physical and intellectual).
NOW, SCIENCE HAS INCREASED MUCH CONFIRMATION THAT EQUILIBRIUM, PROPORTIONAL AND TACTICAL FEELINGS ARE THE FOUNDATION WHICH THE SUCCESSFUL TRAINING OF THE CHILD IS CONSTRUCTED.
Signs of vestibular dysfunction.
1. Hypersensitivity to movement (excessive reaction)
– Avoid / does not like playgrounds: swings, stairs, slides, carousels;
– Prefers sedentary pursuits, moves slowly and carefully, avoids risks, gives the impression of “weakling”;
– Avoid / does not like elevators and escalators, can sit down when they have to / on them to come in, it can turn to / on them;
– Can cuddle up to an adult person whom he trusts;
– Can greatly frighten the fall, even if there is no real risk of such;
– He is afraid of heights, even climbing up on a border or a step;
– Afraid to tear his feet off the ground;
– Boitsya climb and go down the stairs, walk on uneven surface;
– Afraid to be turned upside down, sideways, backwards; Bduet resolutely refuse to wash his head in a position bending over the sink;
– Freezes, if someone else starts to move it, for example, pushes his chair closer to the table;
– In infancy, children’s swings or javelins might not like;
– Can be afraid to ride a bicycle, master it with great difficulties, may be afraid of jumping, jumping, balancing, standing on one leg, especially with closed eyes;
– I did not like to lie on my stomach in infancy;
– Easily loses balance and may seem awkward;
– Afraid of those activities that require a good balance;
– Avoids sharp and rotational movements.
Hypersensitivity to movement (inadequate response)
– Is in constant motion, it seems, can not sit stillly for a minute;
– Strives for everything that gives a sense of rapid, intense movement, rotation;
– Likes to be thrown up;
– Can whirl around for hours without feeling dizzy;
– In amusement parks, he likes everything fast, tense and / or frightening;
– Constantly jumping on furniture, on a trampoline, spinning on a spinning chair, turning upside down;
– Likes to ride on a swing as high as possible and as long as possible;
– Seeking sources of excitement, adventure, often dangerous;
– Constantly runs, jumps, jumps, etc. Instead of a simple walk;
– When he sits, swings his whole body, shakes his foot or head;
– Likes rapid sudden movements, for example, when a car or a bicycle jumps on a bumpy road.
PRINCIPLES (Muscle-joint) SENSE.
It is the ability of the brain to automatically, unconsciously feel the position and movement of various parts of the body, “see” them in their mind’s eye. This strange word consists of the roots of two Latin words: “awareness” and “feeling oneself.” It was this ability that the great physiologist Charles Sherrington called the sixth sense in 1890. Prior to this proprioception was unknown.
Proprioceptive feeling helps to control movements without the participation of vision. Therefore, any movement depends on the level of development of the proprioceptive function. If it is broken, it is very difficult to perform movements, because we can control our body only if we feel it.
Receptors of proprioceptive sensation (proprioceptors) are located in the muscles and joints throughout the body. There are neuromuscular spindles that react to stretching, the Golgi tendon reacts to stress, and the Golgi-Mazzoni body is pressured. When all these receptors work normally, the brain “knows” all the time, where different parts of the body are in space and how They move.
One of the main functions of the musculo-articular feeling is holding the vertical position of the body in the gravitational field of the Earth. Since we are constantly exposed to gravity, this feeling is “on” constantly.
We all experienced a temporary loss of proprioception, “sitting out” a bent leg. In this case, the leg was disturbed by blood circulation and for a time it felt like a foreign object. Then we started shaking our foot or rubbing it to bring back normal sensations.
Imagine that some children can feel bad parts of their body constantly. Proprioceptive feeling is often disturbed in children, since it requires normal muscle tone, as well as the ability of the brain to regulate muscle tone. Also, the normal operation of the vestibular and tactile senses, the visual system is necessary.
Signs of proprioceptive dysfunction:
Search for sensory experiences:
– Tends to the ability to jump, stumble on something, fall / pile;
– Stomping his feet during a walk;
– Knocks his feet on the floor or on the chair when he sits;
– Bites / sucks fingers and / or often crunches joints of fingers;
– Likes to wrap tightly in many blankets or in a heavy blanket, especially when going to sleep;
– Prefers clothes (as well as belts, hoods and laces) as closely as possible;
– Likes the feeling of squelching, squashing, and tends to it;
– He likes rough hugs;
– Excessive knocking of toys and other objects;
– He loves a lot, a struggle;
– Often deliberately falls to the floor;
– Ready to jump for hours on the trampoline;
– Grinds his teeth in the daytime;
– Likes to shove, drag, drag objects;
– Likes to jump from furniture and from other high objects;
– Often strikes, pushes other children, leans on them;
– Chews pens, straws, shirt sleeves, etc.
Difficulties with the ordering of traffic.
– Can not assess how much to bend and stretch the muscles when performing some kind of action (for example, to put your hand into the sleeve or climb somewhere);
– Difficulty with adjusting the pressure when writing / drawing: can write so that you can not see almost anything, or, conversely, immediately break the pencil lead;
– Writing is very sloppy, and when you erase what you write, it often breaks the paper;
– Constantly breaks toys and other objects;
– Can not correctly determine the weight of the object, it can too much pressure on the glass with juice or complain that the object is too heavy, without applying sufficient force;
– May not understand what is “heavy” and “light”, can not compare objects by weight;
– It seems that in all actions it applies too much force: when walking; Squeezes objects too much, slams the doors, puts objects with force and rumbling.
Low muscle tone and / or coordination.
– Relaxed, “flexible” body;
– Often “slips”, lies down and / or leans his head on his arm, working at his desk;
– Often sits on the floor in the W-position, to stabilize the body;
– Easily gets tired!
– Compensates for relaxation with a strong grip when holding / holding onto the object;
– It is difficult to turn the handles (door and other), open and close objects;
– When falling, it can not be grouped and kept;
– Difficulties with dressing and button fastening and all other fasteners;
– Could not creep in infancy;
– Poorly aware of his body; Stumbles upon objects, knocks down objects, stumbles, seems clumsy;
– Bad large motor skills; Badly jumps, catches the ball, climbs the stairs, can not manipulate the puppet;
– Poor fine motor skills; Difficulties in using tools, pencil, cutlery, scallop, scissors, etc .;
– Can seem ambidekstrom, often change hands in coloring, carving, writing; Does not have an established leading hand to 4-5 years;
– It’s hard to lick ice cream in a horn:
– It seems very insecure in the animation, for example, if you need to step over something;
– It is difficult to learn the movements of exercise or dance.
Signs of auditory dysfunction (with hearing problems excluded)
Hypersensitivity to sounds (auditory defense reaction):
– Distracted by sounds that are not normally noticed by others; For example, the buzz of a lamp or a refrigerator, a fan, a heater, the ticking of a clock;
– The sound of the toilet flush is frightened (especially in public toilets), a vacuum cleaner, a hair dryer, a squeak of shoes, barking a dog;
– Freezes from or is distracted by an unexpected loud sound;
– Irritated / distracted by background noise outside the building, for example, by the buzzing of lawn mowers in the garden, the sounds of construction;
– Often asks people not to make noise, do not talk, do not sing;
– With an unexpected loud sound, runs away, screams, closes his ears with his hands;
– Can refuse to visit the cinema, parade, ice rink, music concert, etc .;
– A person may like or dislike depending on whether he likes the sound of his voice.
Hypersensitivity to sound (insufficient recording of sounds):
– Often does not respond to verbal treatment, to appeal by name;
– It seems that he himself makes noise solely for the sake of noise as such;
– likes to listen to music and television very loudly;
– It seems that he understands and hears by ear;
– It seems that he does not understand the direction of the source of sound;
– Often aloud and loud enough himself directs himself during the execution of the assignment;
– In infancy, little or no vocalized and did not roam;
– Requires repeated repetition of instructions, otherwise it often replies “What?”
Tactile system: The skin analyzer connects the body with the outside world. Combines sensitivities such as:
Tactile sensory system, along with proprioceptive, visual and vestibular sensory systems, “supplies” the brain with information about the position and movement of the body in space, the position of its individual parts. In addition, it plays an important role in the orientation of the person in the environment (especially severe skin sensation develops in the blind and deaf-blind, thus allowing such people to avoid exposure to the damaging agent). Thanks to the tactile sensory system, the infant’s contact with the mother is made, the performance of various gaming, educational and labor operations, the intimate relationship between a man and a woman, the feeling of comfort from wearing clothes. In principle, such examples, proving the importance of tactile reception, you can list more and more. Let’s just say one thing: violation of this kind of sensitivity significantly reduces the adaptive capacity of a person and deprives him of many joys of life. The tactile sensory system occupies a special place in mammals, carrying out vital functions – tactile study of the environment, nutrition, sound formation, etc.
Tactile sensitivity is dramatically increased in areas of the body that are covered with hair. This is explained by the fact that the hair plays the role of levers and increases the transmission of irritation several times, and since 95% of the surface of the human body is covered with hair, in some areas hardly noticeable, then any contact with the surface of the body is greatly enhanced.
Symptoms of tactile (tactile) dysfunction.
Hypersensitivity to touch (tactile protective reaction).
– An easy or unexpected touch causes fear, anxiety, aggression;
– In infancy he did not like / does not like to be taken in his arms, hugged, perhaps, he arched his back, moved away;
– Falls into a disorder with a wet / dirty diaper, as well as when changing a diaper;
– Dreads or even avoids being close to other people or peers (especially in queues);
– Frightened if someone / something touches the back or in a situation where the touching person is not visible (for example, under the blanket);
– He does not like to brush his hair;
– Does not like to be kissed, wipes the place of a kiss;
– Prefers to cuddle;
– A drop of rain, water from the shower or wind blowing around the neck, can cause painful sensations and a negative reaction / reaction of avoidance;
– Excessively violent reaction to a small cut, a scratch or a bite of an insect;
– Avoid touching certain materials (blankets, rugs, stuffed animals);
– Refuses to wear new or hard clothes, clothes from rough fabrics, with a high collar, jeans, hats, belts, etc.
– Avoid playing with the hands;
– Avoids / dislikes / can not tolerate “dirty games”: with sand, with dirt, water, glue, Okklise material, shaving cream, foam, etc .;
– Falls into a strong disorder due to dirty hands and often seeks to wipe them or wash;
– Too sensitive to tickling;
– Does not tolerate seams on the socks until they are worn;
– Does not tolerate clothing that rubs the skin, is ready to wear shorts and sleeveless jackets all year round, 2-3-year-olds may even prefer to walk naked and constantly pull off diapers and clothes;
– Viceversa, they prefer to wear long arms and trousers all year round, so as not to expose the skin to external influences;
– Falls into stress because of the need to wash;
– Falls into stress because of the need to cut hair, nails;
– Refuses to brush his teeth and terribly afraid of the dentist;
– Extremely capricious in food, carries out a strict selection of tastes and food, a mixture of particles of different consistency does not use, refuses hot and cold, refuses to try new;
– Can refuse to walk barefoot on grass or sand;
– Can only walk on socks.
Hypersensitivity to touch (inadequate response).
– Tends to touch, he needs to touch everything and everyone;
– Does not notice that they touched him or flew at him, unless they do it with special force or intensity;
– Does not pay much attention to wounds (cuts, bruises), does not get upset because of the injections, can even say that he likes the injections;
– May not pay attention to the fact that the hands or face are dirty, the nose is flowing;
– Can manifest self-aggression: pinching, biting yourself, being yourself on the head;
– All the time something pulls into the mouth;
– Often hurts other children or animals during the game;
– Constantly touches surfaces or objects that bring calmness (for example, a blanket);
– Searches for surfaces and structures that give intensive tactile stimulation;
– Very fond of “dirty” games and looking for them;
– Likes vibration or other strong sensory signals;
– Prefers very spicy, sweet, sour or salty.
Low tactile perception and discrimination of objects are felt.
– Difficulties with the performance of small motor functions: fastening buttons, zippers, fastening of clothes;
– May not understand to what part of his body touched, if not looked;
– Can be afraid of darkness;
– Inaccurately dressed: looks disheveled, does not notice that the pants are twisted, the shirt is tucked only half, the laces are untied, etc .;
– It is difficult to use scissors, crayons, cutlery;
– Even after two years of age, he continues to shove objects into his mouth to examine them;
1. A child with sensory dysfunction does not necessarily have all of the listed symptoms. For example, a child with vestibular dysfunction may have a balance, but he can have a good ear for music.
2. Sometimes a child shows symptoms of dysfunction some day, and the next day everything is fine. For example, a child with proprioceptive problems can stumble on every hillock on the sidewalk on Friday, but at the same time to score a bunch of goals when playing football on Saturday. Variability is a sign of all neurological disorders.
3. A child may exhibit symptoms of a certain dysfunction, but not have it. For example, a child who avoids touching may seem hypersensitive to tactile stimulation, and can do so for emotional reasons.
4. A child can combine hypersensitivity to one stimulus and gosposensitivity to others. For example, it can be overly sensitive to light touch, bounce off if someone has patted it on the shoulder, but it’s perfectly safe to carry a deep pain from the injection.
5. Every person periodically has some kind of sensory problems, because none of us can maintain perfect regulation throughout the whole time. A variety of stimuli can interfere with the normal functioning of the brain, creating either sensory overload or, conversely, deprivation.
Signs of dysfunction of the oral signal.
Hypersensitivity to the oral signal (oral defense reaction):
– Capricious in food, often has extreme preferences, for example, a very limited set of products, refuses to try new food in a restaurant, refuses to eat at a party;
– Can eat only soft or puree food after 2 years;
– Can be crushed with food of dense consistency;
Signs of disturbance of the obsessional function (sensitivity to smells):
Hypersensitivity to odors (excessive reaction):
– Reacts negatively to smells that do not disturb the majority or are not even noticed by other people;
– Tell people (or talk about it with others) how unpleasant or strange they smell;
– Refuses to eat any food because of their smell;
– Odors toilet, sweat cause a strong negative reaction or even nausea;
– The smell of perfume and cologne causes irritation, perhaps strong;
– Irritate household and kitchen smells;
– Can refuse to play in someone’s house because of the smell;
– The smell is the leading criterion for the definition of narwhits or does not like a particular person or a particular place.
Hyposensitivity to odors (inadequate response):
– Difficulty in distinguishing unpleasant odors;
– Can eat or drink something poisonous, because it does not feel a hideous smell;
– Can not detect the smells of special “snuff” stickers;
– Does not notice the smells that the people complain about;
– Does not notice or ignores unpleasant smells;
– Carefully sniffs new objects, people, places;
– Sniffing the subject is one way of interacting with it.
About a weighted blanket!
The mechanism of action of the weighted blanket is based on strengthening proprioceptive feedback – increasing the flow of information to the brain from the pressure in the body of the receptors. Swaddling of babies works in a similar way. You, of course, know: if the raging baby is tightly swaddled – he instantly calms down and calms down.
Using a weighted blanket at a reasonable weight selection is safe and has no contraindications. Efficacy in a wide range of diseases is confirmed by clinical trials.
Taken from the group in contact “Speech and Sensory Integration” https://vk.com/rechsensory